Ch94. Electrophysical Agents in Physiotherapy

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  16. Enwemeka CS: The effects of therapeutic ultrasound on tendon healing. A biomechanical study, Am J Phys Med Rehabil 68: 283, 1989. PUBMED Abstract
  17. Ramirez A, Schwane JA, McFarland C, et al: The effects of ultrasound on collagen synthesis and fibroblast proliferation in vitro, Med Sci Sports Exerc 29: 362, 1997. PUBMED Abstract
  18. Watson T: Soft tissue healing, In Touch 104: 14, 2003.
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  20. Srbely JZ, Dickey JP: Randomized controlled study of the antinociceptive effects of ultrasound on trigger point sensitivity: novel applications in myofascial therapy, Clin Rehabil 21: 411, 2007. PUBMED Abstract
  21. Watson T: Electrotherapy and tissue repair, Sportex Med 29: 7, 2006.
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  26. Sanders-Shamis M, Bramlage LR, Weisbrode SE, et al: A preliminary investigation of the effect of selected electromagnetic field devices on healing of cannon bone osteotomies in horses, Equine Vet J 21: 201, 1989. PUBMED Abstract
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  28. Goldin J: The effects of Diapulse on the healing of wounds: a double blind randomised controlled trial in man, Br J Plast Surg 34: 267, 1981. PUBMED Abstract
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  33. King PR: Low level laser therapy: a review, Physiother Theory Pract 6: 127, 1990.
  34. Enwemeka CS: Attenuation and penetration of visible 632.8 nm and invisible infrared 904 nm light in soft tissues, Laser Ther J 13: 16, 2003.
  35. Ramey DW, Basford JR: Laser therapy in horses, Comp Cont Educ 22: 263, 2000.
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  37. Knowles D, Mackintosh S: A survey of animal physiotherapy practice in Britain, Physiotherapy 80: 285, 1994.
  38. Vasseljen O, Hoeg N, Kjeldstad B, et al: Low level laser versus placebo in the treatment of tennis elbow, Scand J Rehab Med 24: 37, 1992. PUBMED Abstract
  39. Barclay J: As old as the hills—a historical review of treatment. In: In good hands: the history of the Chartered Society of Physiotherapists, Oxford, 1994, Butterworth Heinemann.
  40. Del Mar CB, Glasziou PPI, Spinks AB: Is laser treatment effective and safe for musculoskeletal pain, Med J Aust 175: 169, 2001. PUBMED Abstract
  41. Devor M: What’s in a laser beam for pain therapy, Pain 43: 139, 1990. PUBMED Abstract
  42. Goldman JA, Chiapella J, Bass N, et al: Laser therapy of rheumatoid arthritis, Laser Surg Med 1: 93, 1980. PUBMED Abstract
  43. Bromiley M: Equine injury, therapy and rehabilitation, ed 2, Oxford, 1993, Blackwell Science.
  44. Tunér J, Hode L: Laser therapy: clinical practice & scientific background, Grangesberg, Sweden, 2002, Prima Books AB.
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  46. Bayat M, Delbari A, Almaseyeh M, et al: Low-level laser therapy improves early healing of medial collateral ligament injuries in rats, Photomed Laser Surg 23: 556, 2005. PUBMED Abstract
  47. Young S, Bolton P, Dyson M, et al: Macrophage responsiveness to laser light therapy, Laser Surg Med 9: 497, 1989. PUBMED Abstract
  48. Honmura A, Yanase M, Obata J, et al: Therapeutic effects of Ga-Al-As diode laser irradiation on experimentally induced inflammation in rats, Laser Surg Med 12: 411, 1992. PUBMED Abstract
  49. Bjordal JM, Demmink JH, Ljung AE: Low level laser therapy for tendinopathy. Evidence of a dose–response pattern, Phys Ther Rev 6: 91, 2001.
  50. Lucas C, Criens-Poublon LJ, Cockrell CT, et al: Wound healing in cell studies and animal model experiments of low level laser therapy: were clinical studies justified? A systematic review, Lasers Med Sci 17: 110, 2002. PUBMED Abstract
  51. Brosseau L, Welch V, Wells G, et al: Low level laser therapy (classes I, II and III) for treating rheumatoid arthritis (Cochrane review). In The Cochrane library, issue 4, Chichester, UK, 2003, John Wiley and Sons. PUBMED Abstract
  52. Chow R: Dose dilemmas in low level laser therapy—the effects of different paradigms and historical perspectives, Laser Ther J 13: 47, 2003.
  53. Gur A, Cosut A, Sarac AJ, et al: Efficacy of different therapy regimes of low power laser in painful osteoarthritis of the knee: a double blind and randomised controlled trial, Lasers Surg Med 33: 330, 2003. PUBMED Abstract
  54. Martin BJ, Kilde AM: Treatment of chronic back pain in horses—stimulation of acupuncture points with low powered infrared laser, Vet Surg 16: 106, 1987. PUBMED Abstract
  55. Beckermann H, de Bie RA, Bouter LM, et al: The efficacy of laser therapy for musculoskeletal and skin disorders: a critical based meta-analysis of randomised clinical trials, Phys Ther 72: 483, 1992. PUBMED Abstract
  56. De Bie R, Verhagen A, Lenssen T: Oral presentation: efficacy of 904 nm laser therapy in musculoskeletal disorders: a systematic review. In The Cochrane library, Chichester, UK, 1996, John Wiley and Sons.
  57. Sharma R, Thukral A, Kumar S, et al: Effects of low level lasers in Quervains tenosynovitis, Physiotherapy 88: 730, 2002.
  58. Dyson M, Young S: Effects of laser therapy on wound contraction and cellularity in mice, Laser Med Sci 1: 125, 1986.
  59. McKibbin LS, Paraschak D: Use of laser light to treat certain lesions in Standardbreds, Modern Vet Pract 65: 210, 1984. PUBMED Abstract
  60. McCaughan JS, Bethel BH, Jo T, et al: Effect of low dose argon irradiation on rate of wound closure, Laser Surg Med 5: 607, 1985. PUBMED Abstract
  61. Lucroy MD, Edwards BF, Madwell BR: Low intensity laser light–inducted closure of chronic wound in dogs, Vet Surg 28: 292, 1999. PUBMED Abstract
  62. Ghasmsari SM, Acorda JA, Taguchi K, et al: Evaluation of wound healing of the teat with and without low level laser therapy in dairy cattle by laser Doppler flowmetry in comparison with histopathology, tensiometry and hydroxyproline analysis, Br Vet J 152: 583, 1996. PUBMED Abstract
  63. Fretz PB, Li Z: Low energy laser irradiation treatment for second intention wound healing in horses, Can Vet J 33: 650, 1992. PUBMED Abstract
  64. Ng G, Fung D: Combining therapeutic laser and herbal remedy for treating ligament injury: an ultrastructural morphological study, Photomed Laser Surg 26: 425, 2008. PUBMED Abstract
  65. Basford JR, Malanga, GA, Krause DA: A randomised controlled evaluation of low intensity laser therapy: plantar fasciitis, Arch Phys Med Rehabil 79: 249, 1998. PUBMED Abstract
  66. Snyder-Mackler L, Ladin Z, Schepsis AA, et al: Electrical stimulation of the thigh muscle after reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament, J Bone Joint Surg 73A: 1025, 1991. PUBMED Abstract
  67. Kanaya F, Tajima T: Effect of electro stimulation on denervated muscle, Clin Orthop 283: 296, 1992. PUBMED Abstract
  68. Williams HB: The value of continuous electrical muscle stimulation using a completely implantable system in the preservation of muscle function following motor nerve injury and repair: an experimental study, Microsurgery 17: 589, 1998.
  69. Kernell D, Eerbeek O, Verhey BA, et al: Effects of physiological amounts of high- and low-rate chronic stimulation on fast-twitch muscle of the cat hindlimb. I. Speed- and force-related properties, J Neurophysiol 58: 598, 1987. PUBMED Abstract
  70. Gorza L, Gundersen K, Lomo T, et al: Slow-to-fast transformation of denervated soleus muscles by chronic high-frequency stimulation in the rat, J Physiol 402: 627, 1988. PUBMED Abstract
  71. Bigard A: Effects of surface electro stimulation on the structure and metabolic properties in monkey skeletal muscle, Med Sci Sports Exer 25: 355, 1993. PUBMED Abstract
  72. Clemente FR, Barron KW: The influence of muscle contractions on the degree of microvascular perfusion in rat skeletal muscle following transcutaneous neuromuscular electrical stimulation, J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 17: 177, 1993. PUBMED Abstract
  73. Millis DL, Levine D, Weigel JP: A preliminary study of early physical therapy following surgery for cranial cruciate ligament rupture in dogs, Vet Surg 26: 254, 1997.
  74. Millis DL, Levine D, Taylor RA: Canine rehabilitation and physical therapy, St. Louis, 2004, Saunders.
  75. Watson T: (Accessed March 21, 2009.)
  76. Wolf SL, Gersh MR, Rao VR: Examination of electrode placements and stimulating parameters in treating chronic pain with conventional transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), Pain 11: 37, 1981. PUBMED Abstract
  77. Baldry PE: Acupuncture, trigger points and musculoskeletal pain, Edinburgh, UK, 1989, Churchill Livingstone.
  78. Zurgman C: Dermatitis from transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, J Am Acad Derm 6: 936, 1982.
  79. Binder-Macleod SA, Snyder-Mackler L: Muscle fatigue: clinical implications for fatigue assessment and neuromuscular electrical stimulation, Phys Ther 73: 902, 1993. PUBMED Abstract
  80. Haker E, Lundeberg T: Laser treatment to acupuncture points in lateral humeral epicondylalgia—a double blind study, Pain 43: 243, 1990. PUBMED Abstract