Ch8. Manipulation

  1. Nilsson G, Fredricson I, Drevemo S: Some procedures and tools in the diagnostics of distal equine lameness, Acta Vet Scand Suppl 44:63, 1973. PUBMED Abstract
  2. Ramey DW: Prospective evaluation of forelimb flexion tests in practice: clinical response, radiographic correlation, and predictive value for future lameness, Proc Am Assoc Equine Pract 43:116, 1997.
  3. Verschooten F, Verbeeck J: Flexion test of the metacarpophalangeal and interphalangeal joints and flexion angle of the metacarpophalangeal joint in sound horses, Equine Vet J 29:50, 1997. PUBMED Abstract
  4. Dyson SJ: Evaluation of the musculoskeletal system. Part 4. The use of flexion tests and small diameter lunging. In Mair T, ed: British Equine Veterinary Association manual: the pre-purchase examination, Newmarket, 1998, Equine Veterinary Journal.
  5. Busschers E, Van Weeren PR: Use of the flexion test of the distal forelimb in the sound horse: repeatability and effect of age, gender, weight, height and fetlock joint range of motion, J Vet Med A Physiol Pathol Clin Med 48:413, 2001. PUBMED Abstract
  6. Keg P, van Weeren PR, Back W, et al: Variations in the force applied to flexion tests of the distal limb of horses, Vet Rec 141:435, 1997. PUBMED Abstract
  7. Nilsson G: Lameness and pathologic changes in the distal joints and the phalanges of the Standardbred horse, Acta Vet Scand (Suppl) 43:83, 1973. PUBMED Abstract
  8. Strand E, Martin GS, Crawford MP, et al: Intra-articular pressure, elastance and range of motion in flexion of the equine metacarpophalangeal joint, Am J Vet Res 56:1362, 1995. PUBMED Abstract
  9. Meijer M, Busschers E, Van Weeren P: Which joint is most important for the positive outcome of a flexion test of the distal forelimb of a sound horse? Equine Vet Educ 13:319, 2001.
  10. Dyson SJ: Personal communication, 2001.
  11. Ducharme ND: Personal communication, 1981.