Ch72. The Suspensory Apparatus

  1. Dyson S: The suspensory apparatus. In Rantanen N, McKinnon A, eds: Equine diagnostic ultrasonography, Baltimore, 1998, Williams & Wilkins.
  2. Muylle S, Desmet P, Simoens P, et al: Histological study of the innervation of the suspensory ligament of the forelimb of the horse, Vet Rec 142:606, 1998. PUBMED Abstract
  3. Ford T, Ross M, Orsini P: A comparison of methods for proximal metacarpal anaesthesia in horses, Vet Surg 18:146, 1988.
  4. Dyson S, Romero J: An investigation of injection techniques for local analgesia of the equine distal tarsus and proximal metatarsus, Equine Vet J 25:30, 1993. PUBMED Abstract
  5. Denoix J-M: Functional anatomy of tendon and ligaments in the distal limbs (manus and pes), Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 10:273, 1994. PUBMED Abstract
  6. Bramlage L, Buckowiecki C, Gabel A: The effect of training on the suspensory apparatus of the horse, Proc Am Assoc Equine Pract 35:245, 1989.
  7. Patterson-Kane J, Firth E, Parry D, et al: Effects of training on collagen fibril populations in the suspensory ligament and deep digital flexor tendon of young thoroughbreds, Am J Vet Res 59:64, 1998. PUBMED Abstract
  8. Marks D, Mackay-Smith M, Leslie A, et al: Lameness resulting from high suspensory disease (HSD) in the horse, Proc Am Assoc Equine Pract 24:493, 1981.
  9. Genovese R, Rantanen N, Hauser M, et al: Diagnostic ultrasonography of equine limbs, Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 2:145, 1986. PUBMED Abstract
  10. Huskamp B, Nowak M: Insertion desmopathies in the horse, Pferdeheilkunde 4:3, 1988.
  11. Dyson S: Some observations on lameness associated with pain in the proximal metacarpal region, Equine Vet J Suppl 6:43, 1988. PUBMED Abstract
  12. Dyson S: Proximal suspensory desmitis: clinical, ultrasonographic and radiographic features, Equine Vet J 23:25, 1991.
  13. Brokken T, Schneider R, Sampson S, et al: Magnetic resonance imaging features of proximal metacarpal and metatarsal injuries in the horse, Vet Radiol Ultrasound 48:507, 2007. PUBMED Abstract
  14. Dyson S: Diagnosis and management of common suspensory lesions in the forelimbs and hindlimbs of sport horses, Clin Tech Equine Pract 6:179, 2007.
  15. Castro F, Schumacher J, Pauwels F, et al: A new approach for perineural injection of the lateral palmar nerve in the horse, Vet Surg 34:539, 2005. PUBMED Abstract
  16. Dyson S: Proximal suspensory desmitis in the forelimb and the hindlimb, Proc Am Assoc Equine Pract 46:137, 2000.
  17. Nagy A, Bodo G, Dyson S, et al: Diffusion of contrast medium after perineural injection of the palmar and palmar metacarpal nerves (low 4-point nerve block): an in vivo and in vitro study, Equine Vet J (In press). PUBMED Abstract
  18. Ross M, Ford T, Orsini P: Incomplete longitudinal fracture of the proximal palmar cortex of the third metacarpal bone in horses, Vet Surg 17:82, 1988. PUBMED Abstract
  19. Lloyd K, Kobluk P, Ragle C, et al: Incomplete palmar fracture of the proximal extremity of the third metacarpal bone in horses: ten cases (1981-1986), J Am Vet Med Assoc 192:798, 1988. PUBMED Abstract
  20. Pleasant R, Baker G, Muhlbauer M, et al: Stress reactions and stress fractures of the proximal palmar aspect of the third metacarpal bone in horses: 58 cases (1980-1990), J Am Vet Med Assoc 201:1918, 1992. PUBMED Abstract
  21. Bramlage L, Gabel A, Hackett R: Avulsion fractures of the origin of the suspensory ligament in the horse, J Am Vet Med Assoc 176:1004, 1980. PUBMED Abstract
  22. Dyson S: Problems encountered in equine lameness diagnosis with special reference to local analgesic techniques, radiology and ultrasonography, Newmarket, England, 1995, R & W Publications.
  23. Butler J, Colles C, Dyson S, et al: The metacarpal and metatarsal regions. In Clinical radiology of the horse, ed 3, Oxford, 2008, Wiley-Blackwell.
  24. Martin F, Herthel D-J, Snow V, et al: Scintigraphie osseuse et diagnostic des desmites proximales du muscle interosseux III chez le cheval: à propos de 28 cas (1990-1992), Point Vet 26:1061, 1995.
  25. Edwards R, Ducharme N, Fubini S, et al: Scintigraphy for the diagnosis of avulsions of the origin of the suspensory ligament in horses: 51 cases (1980-1993), J Am Vet Med Assoc 207:608, 1995. PUBMED Abstract
  26. Dyson S, Murray R, Weekes J: Scintigraphic evaluation of the proximal metacarpal and metatarsal regions in horses with proximal suspensory desmitis, Vet Radiol Ultrasound 48:78, 2007. PUBMED Abstract
  27. Bischofberger A, Konar M, Ohlerth S, et al: Magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasonography and histology of the suspensory ligament origin: a comparative study of normal anatomy of Warmbloods, Equine Vet J 38:508, 2006. PUBMED Abstract
  28. Nagy A, Dyson S: Magnetic resonance anatomy of the proximal metacarpal region in the horse, Vet Radiol Ultrasound 50:595, 2009. PUBMED Abstract
  29. Dyson S, Arthur R, Palmer S, et al: Suspensory ligament desmitis, Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 11:177, 1995. PUBMED Abstract
  30. Dyson S, Genovese R: The suspensory apparatus. In Ross MW, Dyson SJ, eds: Diagnosis and management of lameness in the horse, St Louis, 2003, Elsevier.
  31. Boening J, Liffeld S, Matuschek S: Radial extracorporeal shock wave therapy for chronic insertion desmopathy of the proximal suspensory ligament, Proc Am Assoc Equine Pract 46:203, 2000.
  32. Crowe O, Dyson S, Schramme M, et al: Treatment of chronic or recurrent proximal suspensory desmitis using radial pressure wave therapy, Equine Vet J 36:313, 2004. PUBMED Abstract
  33. Hewes C, White N: Outcome of desmoplasty and fasciotomy for desmitis of the origin of the suspensory ligament in horses: 27 cases (1995-2004), J Am Vet Med Assoc 229:407, 2006. PUBMED Abstract
  34. Dyson S: Proximal suspensory desmitis in the hindlimb, Equine Vet Educ 7:275, 1995.
  35. Toth F, Schumacher J, Schramme M, et al: Compressive damage to the deep branch of the lateral plantar nerve associated with lameness caused by proximal suspensory desmitis, Vet Surg 37:328, 2008. PUBMED Abstract
  36. Murray R, Dyson S, Tranquille C, et al: Association of type of sport and performance level with anatomical site of orthopaedic injury and injury diagnosis, Equine Vet J Suppl 36:411, 2006. PUBMED Abstract
  37. Dyson S: Proximal suspensory desmitis in the hindlimb: 42 cases, Br Vet J 150:279, 1994. PUBMED Abstract
  38. Dyson S: Proximal metacarpal and metatarsal pain: a diagnostic challenge, Equine Vet Educ 15:134, 2006.
  39. Labens R, Schramme M, Robertson I, et al: Clinical, magnetic resonance and sonographic imaging findings in horses with proximal plantar metatarsal pain, Vet Radiol Ultrasound 51:11, 2010. PUBMED Abstract
  40. Bathe A: Plantar metatarsal neurectomy and fasciotomy for the treatment of hindlimb proximal suspensory desmitis. Proceedings of the 45th Congress of the British Equine Veterinary Association, Birmingham, UK, 198, 2006.
  41. Kelly G: Results of neurectomy of the deep branch of the lateral plantar nerve for treatment of proximal suspensory desmitis. Proceedings of the 16th Annual Convention of the European College of Veterinary Surgeons, Dublin, 130, 2007.
  42. Launois T, Desbrosse F, Perrin R: Percutaneous osteostixis as treatment of the palmar/plantar third metacarpal/metatarsal cortex at the origin of the suspensory ligament in 29 cases, Equine Vet Educ 15:126, 2006.
  43. Hughes T: Personal communication, 2007.
  44. Pauwels F, Schumacher J, Mayhew Jvan Sickle D: Neurectomy of the deep branch of the lateral plantar nerve can cause neurogenic atrophy of the muscle fibres in the proximal suspensory ligament (M. interosseous medius), Equine Vet J 41:508, 2009. PUBMED Abstract
  45. Colbourne C, Yovich J: Suspensory ligament injuries in racing horses: ultrasonographic diagnosis and long term follow up, Aust Equine Vet 12:119, 1994.
  46. Schnabel L, Mohammed H, Jacobson M, et al: Effects of platelet rich plasma and acellular bone marrow on gene expression patterns and DNA content of equine suspensory ligament explant cultures, Equine Vet J 40:260, 2008. PUBMED Abstract
  47. Waselau M, Sutter W, Genovese R, et al: Intralesional injection of platelet-rich plasma followed by controlled walking exercise for treatment of midbody suspensory ligament desmitis in Standardbred racehorses, J Am Vet Med Assoc 232:1515, 2008. PUBMED Abstract
  48. Dyson S: Is degenerative change within hindlimb suspensory ligaments a prelude to all types of injury? Equine Vet Educ (In press).
  49. Minshall G, Wright I: Arthroscopic diagnosis and treatment of intra-articular insertional injuries of the suspensory ligament branches, Equine Vet J 38:10, 2006. PUBMED Abstract
  50. Enzerink E, Dik K: Palmar/plantar annular ligament insertion injury: a report of 4 cases, Equine Vet Educ 13:75, 2001.
  51. Denoix J-M, Busoni V, Olalla M-J: Ultrasonographic examination of the proximal scutum in the horse, Equine Vet J 29:136, 1997. PUBMED Abstract
  52. Winberg F, Petterson H: Diagnosis and treatment of lesions in the intersesamoidean ligament and its adjoining structures, Vet Surg 23:215, 1994.
  53. Dabereiner R, Watkins J, Carterm G, et al: Osteitis/osteomyelitis of the axial border of the proximal sesamoid bone in horses, Proc Am Assoc Equine Pract 45:156, 1999.
  54. Wisner E, O’Brien T, Pool R, et al: Osteomyelitis of the axial border of the proximal sesamoid bones in seven horses, Equine Vet J 23:383, 1991. PUBMED Abstract
  55. Dyson S, Denoix J-M: Tendon, tendon sheath and ligament injuries in the pastern, Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 11:217, 1995. PUBMED Abstract
  56. Schneider R, Tucker R, Habegger S, et al: Desmitis of the straight sesamoidean ligament in horses: 9 cases (1995-1997), J Am Vet Med Assoc 222:973, 2003. PUBMED Abstract
  57. Sampson S, Schneider R, Tucker R, et al: Magnetic resonance imaging features of oblique and straight distal sesamoidean desmitis in 27 horses, Vet Radiol Ultrasound 48:303, 2007. PUBMED Abstract
  58. Smith S, Dyson S, Murray R: Magnetic resonance imaging of distal sesamoidean ligament injury, Vet Radiol Ultrasound 49:516, 2008. PUBMED Abstract
  59. Mero J, Pool R: Twenty cases of degenerative suspensory desmitis in Peruvian Paso horses, Proc Am Assoc Equine Pract 48:329, 2002.
  60. Mero J, Scarlett J: Diagnostic criteria for degenerative suspensory ligament desmitis in Peruvian Paso horses, J Equine Vet Sci 25:224, 2005.
  61. Halper J, Kim B, Khan A, et al: Degenerative suspensory ligament desmitis as a systemic disorder characterised by proteoglycan accumulation, BMC Vet Res 2:12, 2006. PUBMED Abstract
  62. Schenkman D, Armien A, Pool R, et al: Systemic proteoglycan deposition is not a characteristic of equine degenerative suspensory ligament desmitis, J Equine Vet Sci 29:748, 2009.