Ch102. The Bucked-Shin Complex

Lameness Examination: Historical Perspective

Etiology, Pathogenesis, and Conservative Management

  1. Norwood GL: The bucked shin complex in Thoroughbreds, Proc Am Assoc Equine Pract 24: 319, 1978.
  2. Nunamaker DM, Provost MT: The bucked shin complex revisited, Proc Am Assoc Equine Pract 37: 549, 1992.
  3. Nunamaker DM: Bucked shins in horses in musculoskeletal fatigue and stress fractures. In Burr D, Milgrom C, eds: Musculoskeletal fatigue and stress fractures, Boca Raton, 2001, CRC Press.
  4. Nunamaker DM, Butterweck CM, Provost MT: Some geometric properties of the third metacarpal bone: a comparison between the Standardbred and Thoroughbred racehorse, J Biomech 22: 129, 1989. PUBMED Abstract
  5. Nunamaker DM, Butterweck DM, Black J: In vitro comparison of Thoroughbred and Standardbred racehorses with regard to local fatigue failure of the third metacarpal bone, Am J Vet Res 52: 97, 1991. PUBMED Abstract
  6. Nunamaker DM, Provost MT, Bartel DL: Third metacarpal bone strain and stiffness measurements of Thoroughbred racehorses in training. Transactions of the Second Combined Meeting of the Orthopedic Research Societies of the United States, Japan, Canada, and Europe, San Diego, California, November 1995.
  7. Nunamaker DM: The bucked shin complex, Proc Am Assoc Equine Pract 32: 457, 1986.
  8. Nunamaker DM, Butterweck DM, Provost MT: Fatigue fractures in Thoroughbred racehorses: relationship with age, peak bone strain and training, J Orthop Res 8: 604, 1990. PUBMED Abstract
  9. Nunamaker DM, Butterweck DM: Bone modeling and remodeling in the Thoroughbred racehorse: relationships of exercise to bone morphometry. Transactions of the Thirty-Fifth Annual Meeting of the Orthopaedic Research Society, Las Vegas, Nevada, February 1989.
  10. Boston RC, Nunamaker DM: Gait and speed as exercise components of risk factors associated with onset of fatigue injury of the third metacarpal bone in 2-year-old Thoroughbred racehorses, Am J Vet Res 61: 602, 2000. PUBMED Abstract
  11. Nunamaker DM: Relationships of exercise regimen and racetrack surface to modeling/remodeling of the third metacarpal bone in two-year-old thoroughbred racehorses, Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol 4: 195, 2002.
  12. Nunamaker DM: On bucked shins (Milne Lecture), Proc Am Assoc Equine Pract 48: 76, 2002.
  13. Estberg L, Stover S, Gardner IA, et al: High-speed exercise history and catastrophic racing fracture in Thoroughbreds, Am J Vet Res 57: 1549, 1996. PUBMED Abstract
  14. Giladi M, Milgrom C, Simkin A, et al: Stress fractures and tibial bone width: a risk factor, J Bone Joint Surg Br 69: 326, 1987. PUBMED Abstract
  15. Milgrom C, Giladi M, Simkin A, et al: The area moment of inertia of the tibia: a risk factor for stress fractures, J Biomech 22: 1243, 1989. PUBMED Abstract
  16. Gibson VA, Stover SM, Martin RB, et al: Fatigue behavior of the equine third metacarpus: mechanical property analysis, J Orthop Res 13: 861, 1995. PUBMED Abstract
  17. Rubin CT, Lanyon LE: Osteoregulatory nature of mechanical stimuli: function as a determinant for adaptive final, J Orthop Res 5: 300, 1987.
  18. Woo SLY, Kvei SC, Amiel D, et al: The effect of prolonged physical training on the properties of long bone: a study of Wolff’s law, J Bone Joint Surg Am 63: 780, 1981. PUBMED Abstract
  19. Milgrom C, Finestone A, Mendelson S, et al: The effect of pre-induction sport participation on the incidence of stress fractures in infantry recruits. Transactions of the Forty-Fourth Annual Meeting of the Orthopaedic Research Society, New Orleans, March, 1998.
  20. Moyer W, Fisher JRS: Bucked shins: effects of differing track surfaces and proposed training regimens, Proc Am Assoc Equine Pract 37: 541, 1992.

Stress Fractures of the Third Metacarpal Bone: Surgical Management

  1. Specht TE, Miller GJ, Colahan PT: Effects of clustered drill holes on the breaking strength of the equine third metacarpal bone, Am J Vet Res 51: 1242, 1990. PUBMED Abstract
  2. Dallap BL, Bramlage LR, Embertson RM: Results of screw fixation combined with cortical drilling for treatment of dorsal cortical stress fractures of the third metacarpal bone in 56 Thoroughbred racehorses, Equine Vet J 31: 252, 1999. PUBMED Abstract
  3. Cervantes C, Madison JB, Ackerman N, et al: Surgical treatment of dorsal cortical fractures of the third metacarpal bone in Thoroughbred horses: 53 cases (1985-1989), J Am Vet Med Assoc 200: 1997, 1992. PUBMED Abstract