Ch38. The Carpus

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  2. Whitton RC, Rose RJ: The intercarpal ligaments of the equine midcarpal joint. II. The role of the palmar intercarpal ligaments in the restraint of dorsal displacement of the proximal row of carpal bones, Vet Surg 26:367, 1997. PUBMED Abstract
  3. Whitton RC, McCarthy RH, Rose RJ: The intercarpal ligaments of the equine midcarpal joint. I. The anatomy of the palmar and dorsomedial intercarpal ligaments of the midcarpal joint, Vet Surg 26:359, 1997. PUBMED Abstract
  4. Selway SJ: Intercarpal ligament impingement: a primary cause of joint pathology, Proc Am Assoc Equine Pract 37:779, 1991.
  5. Whitton RC, Kannegieter NJ, Rose RJ: The intercarpal ligaments of the equine midcarpal joint. III. Clinical observations in 32 racing horses with midcarpal joint disease, Vet Surg 26:374, 1997. PUBMED Abstract
  6. Bramlage LR, Schneider RK, Gabel AA: A clinical perspective on lameness originating in the carpus, Equine Vet J Suppl 6:12, 1988. PUBMED Abstract
  7. Young DR, Delaney CL, Richardson DW: Role of intercarpal ligaments in distribution and attenuation of articular contact stress in horses, Vet Surg 23:428, 1994 (abstract).
  8. Phillips TJ, Wright IM: Observations on the anatomy and pathology of the palmar intercarpal ligaments in the middle carpal joints of thoroughbred racehorses, Equine Vet J 26:486, 1994. PUBMED Abstract
  9. McIlwraith CW: Tearing of the medial intercarpal ligament in the equine midcarpal joint, Equine Vet J 24:367, 1992. PUBMED Abstract
  10. Ford TS, Ross MW, Orsini PG: Communications and boundaries of the middle carpal and carpometacarpal joints in horses, Am J Vet Res 49:2161, 1988. PUBMED Abstract
  11. Ford TS, Ross MW, Orsini PG: A comparison of methods for proximal palmar metacarpal analgesia in horses, Vet Surg 18:146, 1989. PUBMED Abstract
  12. Dyson SJ: Problems associated with the interpretation of the results of regional and intra-articular anaesthesia in the horse, Vet Rec 118:419, 1986. PUBMED Abstract
  13. Schaer T, Ross MW: Unpublished data, 1995.
  14. Waselau M, Bertone AL, Green EM: Computed tomographic documentation of a comminuted fourth carpal bone fracture associated with carpal instability treated by partial carpal arthrodesis in an Arabian filly, Vet Surg 35:618, 2006. PUBMED Abstract
  15. Anastasiou A, Skioldebrand E, Ekman S, Hall LD: Ex vivo magnetic resonance imaging of the distal row of equine carpal bones: assessment of bone sclerosis and cartilage damage, Vet Radiol Ultrasound 44: 501, 2003. PUBMED Abstract
  16. Getman LM, McKnight AL, Richardson DW: Comparison of magnetic resonance contrast arthrography and arthroscopic anatomy of the equine palmar lateral outpouching of the middle carpal joint, Vet Radiol Ultrasound 48:493, 2007. PUBMED Abstract
  17. Driver AJ, Barr FJ, Fuller CJ, Barr AR: Ultrasonography of the medial palmar intercarpal ligament in the Thoroughbred: technique and normal appearance, Equine Vet J 36:402, 2004. PUBMED Abstract
  18. Foreman JH, Kneller SK, Twardock AR, et al: Forelimb skeletal scintigraphy responses in previously untrained Thoroughbreds undergoing initial treadmill training, Equine Vet J Suppl 34:230, 2002. PUBMED Abstract
  19. Kawcak CE, McIlwraith CW, Norrdin RW, et al: Clinical effects of exercise on subchondral bone of carpal and metacarpophalangeal joints in horses, Am J Vet Res 61:1252, 2000. PUBMED Abstract
  20. Kawcak CE, Frisbie DD, Werpy NM, et al: Effects of exercise vs experimental osteoarthritis on imaging outcomes, Osteoarthritis Cartilage 16:1519, 2008. PUBMED Abstract
  21. Cheetham J, Nixon AJ: Arthroscopic approaches to the palmar aspect of the equine carpus, Vet Surg 35:227, 2006. PUBMED Abstract
  22. Getman LM, Southwood LL, Richardson DW: Palmar carpal osteochondral fragments in racehorses: 31 cases (1994-2004), J Am Vet Med Assoc 228:1551, 2006. PUBMED Abstract
  23. Pool RR, Meagher DM: Pathologic findings and pathogenesis of racetrack injuries, Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 6:1, 1990. PUBMED Abstract
  24. Young A, O’Brien TR, Pool RR, et al: Histologic and microradiographic changes in the third carpal bone of the racing thoroughbred, Vet Surg 7:27, 1988 (abstract).
  25. Radin EL, Parker HG, Pugh JW: Response to joints to impact loading. III. Relationship between trabecular microfractures and cartilage degeneration, J Biomech 6:51, 1973. PUBMED Abstract
  26. Radin EL, Rose RM: Role of subchondral bone in the initiation and progression of cartilage damage, Clin Orthop Relat Res 213:34, 1986. PUBMED Abstract
  27. DeHaan CD, O’Brien TR, Koblik PD: A radiographic investigation of third carpal bone injury in 42 racing thoroughbreds, Vet Radiol 28:88, 1987.
  28. Schneider RK, Bramlage LR, Gabel AA, et al: Incidence, location and classification of 371 third carpal bone fractures in 313 horses, Equine Vet J Suppl 6:33, 1988. PUBMED Abstract
  29. Tidswell HK, Innes JF, Avery NC, et al: High-intensity exercise induces structural, compositional and metabolic changes in cuboidal bones—findings from an equine athlete model, Bone 43:724, 2008. PUBMED Abstract
  30. Magnusson LE, Ekman S: Osteoarthrosis of the antebrachiocarpal joint of 7 riding horses, Acta Vet Scand 42:429, 2001. PUBMED Abstract
  31. Steel CM, Hopper BJ, Richardson JL, et al: Clinical findings, diagnosis, prevalence and predisposing factors for lameness localised to the middle carpal joint in young Standardbred racehorses, Equine Vet J 38:152, 2006. PUBMED Abstract
  32. Malone ED, Les CM, Turner TA: Severe carpometacarpal osteoarthritis in older Arabian horses, Vet Surg 32:191, 2003. PUBMED Abstract
  33. Barr ARS: Carpal conformation in relation to carpal chip fracture, Vet Rec 134: 646, 1994. PUBMED Abstract
  34. Anderson TM, McIlwraith CW, Douay P: The role of conformation in musculoskeletal problems in the racing Thoroughbred, Equine Vet J 36:571, 2004. PUBMED Abstract
  35. McIlwraith CW, Anderson TM, Santschi BN: Conformation and musculoskeletal problems in the racehorse, Clin Tech Equine Pract 2:329, 2003.
  36. Lucas JM, Ross MW, Richardson DW: Postoperative performance of racing Standardbreds treated arthroscopically for carpal chip fracture: 176 cases, Equine Vet J 31:48, 1999. PUBMED Abstract
  37. Palmer SE: Prevalence of carpal fractures in Thoroughbred and Standardbred racehorses, J Am Vet Med Assoc 10:1171, 1986. PUBMED Abstract
  38. Park RD, Morgan JP, O’Brien T: Chip fractures in the carpus of the horse: a radiographic study of their incidence and location, J Am Vet Med Assoc 157:1305, 1970. PUBMED Abstract
  39. McIlwraith CW, Yovich JV, Martin GS: Arthroscopic surgery for the treatment of osteochondral chip fractures in the equine carpus, J Am Vet Med Assoc 191:531, 1987. PUBMED Abstract
  40. Uhlhorn H, Carlsten J: Retrospective study of subchondral sclerosis and lucency in the third carpal bone of Standardbred trotters, Equine Vet J 31:500, 1999. PUBMED Abstract
  41. Uhlhorn H, Eksell P, Sandgren B, Carlsten J: Sclerosis of the third carpal bone. A prospective study of its significance in a group of young Standardbred trotters, Acta Vet Scand 41:51, 2000. PUBMED Abstract
  42. Hopper BJ, Steel C, Richardson JL, et al: Radiographic evaluation of sclerosis of the third carpal bone associated with exercise and the development of lameness in Standardbred racehorses, Equine Vet J 36:441, 2004. PUBMED Abstract
  43. Wilson BD, Neal RJ, Howard A, Groenendyk S: The gait of pacers. I. Kinematics of the racing stride, Equine Vet J 20:341, 1988. PUBMED Abstract
  44. Dabareiner RM, Sullins KE, Bradley W: Removal of a fracture fragment from the palmar aspect of the intermediate carpal bone in a horse, J Am Vet Med Assoc 203:553, 1993. PUBMED Abstract
  45. Martin GS, Haynes PF, McClure JR: Effect of third carpal slab fracture and repair on racing performance in Thoroughbred horses: 31 cases (1977-1984), J Am Vet Med Assoc 193:107, 1988. PUBMED Abstract
  46. Stephens PR, Richardson DW, Spencer PA: Slab fractures of the third carpal bone in Standardbreds and Thoroughbreds: 155 cases (1977-1984), J Am Vet Med Assoc 193:353, 1988. PUBMED Abstract
  47. Richardson DW: Technique for arthroscopic repair of third carpal bone slab fractures in horses, J Am Vet Med Assoc 188:288, 1986. PUBMED Abstract
  48. Rutherford DJ, Bladon B, Rogers CW: Outcome of lag-screw treatment of incomplete fractures of the frontal plane of the radial facet of the third carpal bone in horses, N Z Vet J, 55:94, 2007. PUBMED Abstract
  49. Kraus B, Ross MW, Boston RC: Surgical and nonsurgical management of sagittal slab fractures of the third carpal bone in racehorses: 32 cases (1991-2001), J Am Vet Med Assoc 226:945, 2005. PUBMED Abstract
  50. Fischer AT, Stover SM: Sagittal fractures of the third carpal bone in horses: 12 cases (1977-1985), J Am Vet Med Assoc 191:106, 1987. PUBMED Abstract
  51. Auer JA, Watkins JP, White NA, et al: Slab fractures of the fourth and intermediate carpal bones in five horses, J Am Vet Med Assoc 188:595, 1986. PUBMED Abstract
  52. Ross MW, Richardson DW, Beroza GA: Subchondral lucency of the third carpal bone in Standardbred racehorses: 13 cases (1982-1988), J Am Vet Med Assoc 195:789, 1989. PUBMED Abstract
  53. Levine DG, Richardson DW: Clinical use of the locking compression plate (LCP) in horses: a retrospective study of 31 cases (2004-2006), Equine Vet J 39:401, 2007. PUBMED Abstract
  54. Carpenter RS, Goodrich LR, Baxter GM, et al: Locking compression plates for pancarpal arthrodesis in a Thoroughbred filly, Vet Surg 37:508, 2008. PUBMED Abstract
  55. Lewis RD: Carpal arthrodesis: technique and prognosis, Proc Am College Vet Surg 64, 2004.
  56. Bertone AL, Schneiter HL, Turner AS, Shoemaker RS: Pancarpal arthrodesis for treatment of carpal collapse in the adult horse: a report of two cases, Vet Surg 18:353, 1989. PUBMED Abstract
  57. Kane AJ, Park RD, McIlwraith CW, et al: Radiographic changes in Thoroughbred yearlings. Part 1: Prevalence at the time of the yearling sales, Equine Vet J 35:354, 2003. PUBMED Abstract
  58. Kane AJ, McIlwraith CW, Park RD, et al: Radiographic changes in Thoroughbred yearlings. Part 2: Associations with racing performance, Equine Vet J 35:366, 2003. PUBMED Abstract
  59. McIlwraith CW: Subchondral cystic lesions (osteochondrosis) in the horse, Compend Contin Educ Pract Vet 4:S396, 1982.
  60. Richardson DW: Personal communication, 2000.
  61. Martin BB, Reef VB: The treatment of a minimally displaced fracture of the distal radius of an adult horse, J Am Vet Med Assoc 191:847, 1987.
  62. Dyson S: Personal communication, 2001.
  63. Beinlich CP, Nixon AJ: Radiographic and pathologic characterization of lateral palmar intercarpal ligament avulsion fractures in the horse, Vet Radiol Ultrasound 45:532, 2004. PUBMED Abstract
  64. Beinlich CP, Nixon AJ: Prevalence and response to surgical treatment of lateral palmar intercarpal ligament avulsion in horses: 37 cases (1990-2001), J Am Vet Med Assoc 226:760, 2005. PUBMED Abstract
  65. Desmaizières LM, Cauvin ER: Carpal collateral ligament desmopathy in three horses, Vet Rec 157:197, 2005. PUBMED Abstract
  66. Nixon AJ, Schachter BL, Pool RR: Exostoses of the caudal perimeter of the radial physis as a cause of carpal synovial sheath tenosynovitis and lameness in horses: 10 cases (1999-2003), J Am Vet Med Assoc 224:264, 2004. PUBMED Abstract
  67. Bertone AL, Powers BE, Turner AS: Chondrosarcoma in the radius of a horse, J Am Vet Med Assoc 185:534, 1984. PUBMED Abstract