Ch87. External Skeletal Fixation

  1. Nemeth F, Black W: The use of the walking cast to repair fractures in horses and ponies, Equine Vet J 23: 32, 1991. PUBMED Abstract
  2. McClure SR, Watkins JP, Bronson DG, et al: In vitro comparison of the standard short limb cast and three configurations of short limb transfixation casts in equine forelimbs, Am J Vet Res 55: 1331, 1994. PUBMED Abstract
  3. McClure SR, Watkins JP, Ashman RB: In vitro comparison of the effect of parallel and divergent transfixation pins on breaking strength of equine third metacarpal bones, Am J Vet Res 55: 1327, 1994. PUBMED Abstract
  4. Elce YA, Southwood LL, Nut JN, et al: Ex vivo comparison of a novel tapered-sleeve and traditional full-limb transfixation pin cast for distal radial fracture stabilization in the horse, Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol 19: 93, 2006. PUBMED Abstract
  5. Nunamaker DM, Richardson DW, Butterweck DM, et al: A new external skeletal fixation device that allows immediate full weight bearing: application in the horse, Vet Surg 15: 345, 1986.
  6. Nunamaker DM, Richardson DW: External skeletal fixation in the horse, Proc Am Assoc Equine Pract 37: 549, 1991.
  7. Nash RA, Nunamaker DM, Baston R: Evaluation of a tapered-sleeve transcortical pin to reduce stress at the bone-pin interface in metacarpal bones obtained from horses, Am J Vet Res 62: 955, 2001. PUBMED Abstract
  8. Kraus BM, Richardson DW, Nunamaker DM, et al: Management of comminuted fractures of the proximal phalanx in horses: 64 cases (1983-2001), J Am Vet Med Assoc 15: 224, 2004. PUBMED Abstract