Ch65. Infectious Arthritis and Fungal Infectious Arthritis

Infectious Arthritis
  1. Steel CM, Hunt AR, Adams PL, et al: Factors associated with prognosis for survival and athletic use in foals with septic arthritis: 93 cases (1987-1994), J Am Vet Med Assoc 215:973, 1999. PUBMED Abstract
  2. Smith LJ, Marr CM, Payne RJ, et al: What is the likelihood that Thoroughbred foals treated for septic arthritis will race? Equine Vet J 36:452, 2004. PUBMED Abstract
  3. Palmer JL, Bertone AL: Joint structure, biochemistry and biochemical disequilibrium in synovitis and equine joint disease, Equine Vet J 26:263, 1994. PUBMED Abstract
  4. Bertone AL: Infectious arthritis. In Mcllwraith CW, Trotter GW, eds: Joint disease in the horse, Philadelphia, 1996, Saunders.
  5. Cohen ND: Causes of and farm management factors associated with disease and death in foals, J Am Vet Med Assoc 204: 1644, 1994. PUBMED Abstract
  6. Schneider RK, Bramlage LR, Moore RM, et al: Open drainage, intraarticular acid systemic antibiotics in the treatment of septic arthritis/tenosynovitis in horses, Equine Vet J 24:436, 1992. PUBMED Abstract
  7. Sanchez LC, Giguere S, Lesster GD: Factors associated with survival of neonatal foals with bacteremia and racing performance of surviving Thoroughbreds: 423 cases (1982-2007), J Am Vet Med Assoc 233:1446, 2008. PUBMED Abstract
  8. Meijer MC, van Weeren PR, Rijkenhuizen AB: Clinical experiences of treating septic arthritis in the equine by repeated joint lavage: a series of 39 cases, J Vet Med Physiol Pathol Clin Med 47:351, 2000. PUBMED Abstract
  9. Schneider RX, Bramlage LR, Moore RM, et al: A retrospective study of 192 horses affected with septic arthritis/tenosynovitis, Equine Vet J 24:436, 1992. PUBMED Abstract
  10. Olds AM, Stewart AA, Freeman DE, Schaeffer DJ: Evaluation of the rate of development of septic arthritis after elective arthroscopy in horses: 7 cases (1994-1954), J Am Vet Med Assoc 229:1949, 2006. PUBMED Abstract
  11. Moore RM, Schneider RK, Kowalski J, et al: Antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial isolates from 233 horses with musculoskeletal infection during 1979-1989, Equine Vet J 24:450, 1992. PUBMED Abstract
  12. Kawaquchi K, Church S: Clostridium septicum arthritis in three foals, Aust Vet J 82:612, 2004.
  13. Raisis AL, Hodgson JL, Hodgson DR: Equine neonatal septicaemia: 24 cases, Aust Vet J 73:137, 1996. PUBMED Abstract
  14. Madison JB, Reid BV, Raskin RE: Amphotericin B treatment of Candida arthritis in two horses, J Am Vet Med Assoc 206:338, 1995. PUBMED Abstract
  15. Hewes CA, Schneider RK, Baszler TV, et al: Septic arthritis and granulomatous synovitis caused by infection with Mycobacterium avium complex in a horse, J Am Vet Med Assoc 226:2035, 2005. PUBMED Abstract
  16. Kenney DG, Robbins SC, Prescott JF, et al: Development of reactive arthritis and resistance to erythromycin and rifampin in a foal during treatment for Rhodococcus equi pneumonia, Equine Vet J 26:246, 1994. PUBMED Abstract
  17. Kuemmerie JM, Uhlig H, Dofler J: Severe acute inflammatory reaction (SAIR) of the fetlock joint after intraarticular hyaluronate injection in a horse, Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol 19:236, 2006. PUBMED Abstract
  18. Bertone AL, McIlwraith CM, Jones RL: Comparison of various treatments for experimentally induced equine infectious arthritis, Am J Vet Res 48:519, 1987. PUBMED Abstract
  19. Hague BA, Honnas CM, Simpson RB, et al: Evaluation of skin bacterial flora before and after aseptic preparation of clipped and nonclipped arthrocentesis sites in horses, Vet Surg 26:121, 1997. PUBMED Abstract
  20. Wright IM, Smith MR, Humphrey DJ, et al: Endoscopic surgery in the treatment of contaminated and injected synovial cavities, Equine Vet J 35:613, 2003. PUBMED Abstract
  21. Kidd JA, Barr AR, Tarlton JF: Use of matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 and white blood cell counts in monitoring the treatment and predicting the survival of horses with septic arthritis, Vet Rec 161:329, 2007. PUBMED Abstract
  22. Fietz S, Bondzio A, Moschos A, et al: Measurement of equine myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in synovial fluid by a modified MPO assay and evaluation of joint diseases—an initial case study, Res Vet Sci 84:347, 2008. PUBMED Abstract
  23. Madison JB, Sommer M, Spencer PA: Relations among synovial membrane histopathologic findings, synovial fluid cytologic findings and bacterial culture results in horses with suspected infectious arthritis: 64 cases (1979-1987), J Am Vet Med Assoc 198:1655, 1991. PUBMED Abstract
  24. Tulamo R-M, Bramlage L, Gabel A: Sequential clinical and synovial fluid changes associated with acute infectious arthritis, Equine Vet J 21:325, 1989. PUBMED Abstract
  25. Tulamo R-M, Bramlage L, Gabel A: The influence of corticosteroids on sequential clinical and synovial fluid parameters in joints with acute infectious arthritis in the horse, Equine Vet J 21:332, 1989. PUBMED Abstract
  26. Crabill MR, Cohen ND, Martin LJ, et al: Detection of bacteria in equine synovial fluid by use of the polymerase chain reaction, Vet Surg 25:195, 1996. PUBMED Abstract
  27. Stahl HD, Hubner B, Seidl B, et al: Detection of multiple viral DNA species in synovial tissue and fluid of patients with early arthritis, Ann Rheum Dis 59:342, 2000. PUBMED Abstract
  28. Spiers S, May SA, Harrison LJ, et al: Proteolytic enzymes in equine joints with infectious arthritis, Equine Vet J 26:48, 1994. PUBMED Abstract
  29. Arican M, Coughlan AR, Clegg PD, et al: Matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 activity in bovine synovial fluids, J Vet Med A Physiol Pathol Clin Med 47:449, 2000. PUBMED Abstract
  30. Bertone AL, Palmer JL, Jones J: Synovial fluid cytokines and eicosanoids as markers of joint disease in horses, Vet Surg 30:258, 2001. PUBMED Abstract
  31. Pilleul F, Garcia J: Septic arthritis of the spine facet joint: early positive diagnosis of magnetic resonance imaging: review of two cases, Joint Bone Spine 67:234, 2000. PUBMED Abstract
  32. Graif M, Schweitzer ME, Deely D, et al: The septic versus nonseptic inflamed joint: MRI characteristics, Skeletal Radiol 28:616, 1999. PUBMED Abstract
  33. Orsini JA, Moate PJ, Engiles J, et al: Cefotaxime kinetics in plasma and synovial fluid following intravenous administration in horses, J Vet Pharmacol Ther 27:293, 2004. PUBMED Abstract
  34. Bertone AL, Tremaine WH, Macoris DG, et al: Effect of the chronic systemic administration of an injectable enrofloxacin solution on physical, musculoskeletal, and histologic parameters in adult horses, Am J Vet Res 217:1514, 2000. PUBMED Abstract
  35. Baldessari A, Bermingham E, Bargar A, et al: Evaluation of the gross and histologic changes in articular cartilage of neonatal foals dosed with enrofloxacin, Equine Vet J 2001 (in review).
  36. Zhanel GG: Influence of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic principles on antibiotic selection, Curr Infect Dis Rep 3:29, 2001. PUBMED Abstract
  37. Godber LM, Walker RD, Stein GE, et al: Pharmacokinetics, nephrotoxicosis, and in vitro antibacterial activity associated with single versus multiple (three times) daily gentamicin treatments in horses, Am J Vet Res 56:613, 1995. PUBMED Abstract
  38. Green SL, Conlon RD: Clinical pharmacokinetics of amikacin in hypoxic premature foals, Equine Vet J 25:276, 1993.
  39. Wichtel MG, Breuhaus BA, Aucoin D: Relation between pharmacokinetics of amikacin sulfate and sepsis score in clinically normal and hospitalized neonatal foals, J Am Vet Med Assoc 200:1339, 1992. PUBMED Abstract
  40. Raisis AL, Hodgson JL, Hodgson DR: Serum gentamicin concentration in compromised neonatal foals, Equine Vet J 30:324, 1998. PUBMED Abstract
  41. Firth EC, Klein WR, Nouws JF, et al: Effect of induced synovial inflammation on pharmacokinetics and synovial concentration of sodium ampicillin and kanamycin sulfate after systemic administration in ponies, J Vet Pharmacol Ther 11:56, 1988. PUBMED Abstract
  42. Lloyd KCK, Stover SM, Pascoe JR, et al: Synovial fluid pH, cytologic characteristics and gentamicin concentration after intra-articular administration of the drug in an experimental model of infectious arthritis in horses, Am J Vet Res 51:1363, 1990. PUBMED Abstract
  43. Wininger DA, Fass RJ: Antibiotic-impregnated cement and beads for orthopedic infections, Antimicrob Agents Chemother 40:2675, 1996. PUBMED Abstract
  44. Bertone AL, Caprile KA, Davis DM, et al: Serum and synovial fluid concentration of gentamicin administered chronically to horses with experimentally induced infectious arthritis, Vet Surg 19:57, 1990.
  45. Lloyd KCK, Stover SM, Pascoe JR, et al: Plasma and synovial fluid concentrations of gentamicin in horses after intraarticular administration of buffered and unbuffered gentamicin, Am J Vet Med Res 49:644, 1988. PUBMED Abstract
  46. Beluche LA, Bertone AL, Anderson DE, et al: Dose-dependent effect of enrofloxacin on equine articular cartilage, Am J Vet Res 60:571, 1999. PUBMED Abstract
  47. Klohnen A, Wilson DG, Hendrickson DA, et al: Effects of potentiated chlorhexidine on bacteria and tarsocrural joints in ponies, Am J Vet Res 57:756, 1996. PUBMED Abstract
  48. Wilson DG, Cooley AJ, MacWilliams PS, et al: Effects of 0.05% chlorhexidine lavage on the tarsocrural joints of horses, Vet Surg 23:442, 1994. PUBMED Abstract
  49. Swalec Tobias KM, Schneider RK, Besser TE: Use of antimicrobial-impregnated polymethylmethacrylate, J Am Vet Med Assoc 208:841, 1996. PUBMED Abstract
  50. Ostermann PA, Seligson D, Henry SL: Local antibiotic therapy for severe open fractures: a review of 1085 consecutive cases, J Bone Joint Surg Br 77:93, 1995. PUBMED Abstract
  51. Schneider RK, Andrea R, Barnes HG: Use of antibiotic-impregnated polymethylmethacrylate for treatment of an open radial fracture in a horse, J Am Vet Med Assoc 207:1454, 1995. PUBMED Abstract
  52. Holcombe SJ, Schneider RK, Bramlage LR, et al: Use of antibiotic-impregnated polymethylmethacrylate in horses with open or infected fractures or joints: 19 cases (1987-1995), J Am Vet Med Assoc 211:889, 1997. PUBMED Abstract
  53. Butson RJ, Schramme MC, Garlick MH, et al: Treatment of intrasynovial infection with gentamicin-impregnated polymethylmethacrylate beads, Vet Rec 138:460, 1996. PUBMED Abstract
  54. Gerhart TN, Roux RD, Hanff PA, et al: Antibiotic-loaded biodegradable bone cement for prophylaxis and treatment of experimental osteomyelitis in rats, J Orthop Res 11:250, 1993. PUBMED Abstract
  55. DiMaio FR, O’Halloran JJ, Quale JM: In vitro elution of ciprofloxacin from polymethylmethacrylate cement beads, J Orthop Res 12:79, 1994. PUBMED Abstract
  56. Mehta S, Humphrey JS, Schenkman DI, et al: Gentamicin distribution from a collagen carrier, J Orthop Res 14:749, 1996. PUBMED Abstract
  57. Ivester KM, Adams SB, Moore GE et al: Gentamicin concentrations in synovial fluid obtained from the tarsocrural joints of horses after implantation of gentamicin-impregnated collagen sponges, Am J Vet Res 67:1519, 2006. PUBMED Abstract
  58. Cook VL, Bertone AL, Kowalski JJ, et al: Biodegradable drug delivery systems for gentamicin release and treatment of synovial membrane infection, Vet Surg 28:233, 1999. PUBMED Abstract
  59. Nie L, Nicolau DP, Tessier PR, et al: Use of bioabsorbable polymer for the delivery of ofloxacin during experimental osteomyelitis treatment, J Orthop Res 16:76, 1998. PUBMED Abstract
  60. Laurencin CT, Gerhart T, Witschger R, et al: Bioerodible polyanhydrides for certibiotic drug delivery: in vivo osteomyelitis treatment in a rat model system, J Orthop Res 11:256, 1993. PUBMED Abstract
  61. Nelson CL, Hickmon SG, Skinner RA: Treatment of experimental osteomyelitis by surgical debridement and implantation of bioerodable, polyanhydride-gentamicin beads, J Orthop Res 15:249, 1977.
  62. Cook VL, Bertone AL, Kowalski JJ, et al: Gentamicin-impregnated biodegradable polymer for the treatment of equine joint infection in vivo: preliminary study, Vet Surg 26:411, 1997.
  63. Benoit MA, Moussatt B, Delloye C, et al: Antibiotic-loaded plaster of Paris implants coated with polylactide-co-glycolide as a controlled release delivery system for the treatment of bone infections, Int Orthop 21:403, 1997. PUBMED Abstract
  64. Rubio-Martinez LM, Lopez-Sanroman J, Cruz AM, et al. Evaluation of safety and pharmacokinetics of vancomycin after intraosseous regional limb perfusion and comparison of results with those obtained after intravenous regional perfusion in horses, Am J Vet Res 67:1701, 2006. PUBMED Abstract
  65. Whitehair KJ, Blevins WE, Fessler JF, et al: Regional perfusion of the equine carpus for antibiotic delivery, Vet Surg 21:279, 1993. PUBMED Abstract
  66. Whitehair KJ, Bowersock T, Blevins WE, et al: Regional limb perfusion for antibiotic treatment of experimentally induced septic arthritis, Vet Surg 21:367, 1992. PUBMED Abstract
  67. Rubio-Martinez LM, Lopez-Sanroman J, Cruz AM, et al: Evaluation of safety and pharmacokinetics of vancomycin after intravenous regional limb perfusion in horses, Am J Vet Res 66:2107, 2005. PUBMED Abstract
  68. Parra-Sanchez A, Lugo J, Boothe DM, et al: Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of enrofloxacin and a low dose of amikacin administered via regional intravenous limb perfusion in standing horses, Am J Vet Res 67:1687, 2006. PUBMED Abstract
  69. Werner LA, Hardy J, Bertone AL: Bone gentamicin concentration after intraarticular injection or regional intravenous perfusion in the horse, Vet Surg 32:559, 2003. PUBMED Abstract
  70. Meagher DT, Latimer FG, Sutter WW, et al: Evaluation of a balloon constant rate infusion system for treatment of septic arthritis, septic tenosynovitis, and contaminated synovial wounds: 23 cases (2002-2005), J Am Vet Med Assoc 228:1930, 2006. PUBMED Abstract
  71. Bolt DM, Ishihara AK, Weisbrode SE, et al: Effects of triamcinolone acetonide, sodium hyaluronate, amikacin sulfate, and mepivacaine hydrochloride, alone and in combination, on morphology and matrix composition of lipopolysaccharide-challenged and unchallenged equine articular cartilage explants, Am J Vet Res 69:861, 2008. PUBMED Abstract
  72. Karpie JC, Chu CR: Lidocaine exhibits dose- and time-dependent cytotoxic effects on bovine articular chondrocytes in vitro, Am J Sports Med 35:1621, 2007. PUBMED Abstract
  73. Bertone AL, Davis DM, Cox HU, et al: Arthrotomy versus arthroscopy and partial synovectomy for treatment of experimentally induced infectious arthritis in horses, Am J Vet Res 53:585, 1992. PUBMED Abstract
  74. Theoret CL, Barber SM, Moyana T, et al: Repair and function of synovium after arthroscopic synovectomy of the dorsal compartment of the equine antebrachiocarpal joint, Vet Surg 25:142, 1996. PUBMED Abstract
  75. Palmer J, Bertone AL, Malemud CJ, et al: Changes in third carpal bone articular cartilage after synovectomy in normal and inflamed joints, Vet Surg 27:321, 1998. PUBMED Abstract
  76. Yarborough TB, Lee MR, Hornof WJ, et al: Evaluation of samarium-153 for synovectomy in an osteochondral fragment–induced model of synovitis in horses, Vet Surg 29:252, 2000. PUBMED Abstract
  77. Ross M, Orsisni J, Richardson D, et al: Closed suction drainage in the treatment of infectious arthritis of the equine tarsocrural joint, Vet Surg 30:21, 1991. PUBMED Abstract
  78. Groom LJ, Gaughan EM, Lillich JD, et al: Arthrodesis of the proximal interphalangeal joint affected with septic arthritis in 8 horses, Can Vet J 41:117, 2000. PUBMED Abstract
  79. Wisner ER, O’Brien TR, Pool RR, et al: Osteomyelitis of the axial border of the proximal sesamoid bones in seven horses, Equine Vet J 23:383, 1991. PUBMED Abstract
  80. Honnas CM, Welch RD, Ford TS, et al: Septic arthritis of the distal interphalangeal joint in 12 horses, Vet Surg 21:261, 1992. PUBMED Abstract
  81. Nagy AD, Simofer H: Mandibular condylectomy and meniscectomy for the treatment of septic temporomandibular joint arthritis in a horse, Vet Surg 35:663, 2006. PUBMED Abstract
  82. Smith R, Kajiyama G, Schurman DJ: Staphylococcal septic arthritis: antibiotic and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug treatment in a rabbit model, J Orthop Res 15:919, 1997. PUBMED Abstract
  83. Doucet M, Bertone A, Hendrickson D, et al: Comparison of efficacy and safety of paste formulations of firocoxib and phenylbutazone in horses with naturally occurring osteoarthritis, J Am Vet Med Assoc 232:91, 2007.
  84. Moses V, Hardy J, Bertone AL, et al: The effect of various nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs on lipopolysaccharide challenged and unchallenged equine synovial membrane explants, Am J Vet Res 162:54, 2001. PUBMED Abstract
  85. Moses VS, Bertone AL: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 18:21, 2002. PUBMED Abstract
  86. Sysel AM, Pleasant RS, Jacobson JD, et al: Efficacy of an epidural combination of morphine and detomidine in alleviating experimentally induced hindlimb lameness in horses, Vet Surg 25:511, 1996. PUBMED Abstract
  87. Sysel AM, Pleasant RS, Jacobson JD, et al: Systemic and local effects associated with long-term epidural catheterization and morphine-detomidine administration in horses, Vet Surg 26:141, 1997. PUBMED Abstract
  88. Smith G, Bertone AL, Kaeding C, et al: Anti-inflammatory effects of topically applied dimethylsulfoxide gel on endotoxin-induced synovitis in horses, Am J Vet Res 59:1149, 1998. PUBMED Abstract
  89. Visai L, Xu Y, Casolini F, et al: Monoclonal antibodies to CNA, a collagen-binding microbial surface component recognizing adhesive matrix molecules, detach Staphylococcus aureus from a collagen substrate, J Biol Chem 275:39837, 2000. PUBMED Abstract
  90. Smeltzer MS, Gillaspy AF: Molecular pathogenesis of staphylococcal osteomyelitis, Poult Sci 79:1042, 2000. PUBMED Abstract
  91. Balaban N, Collins LV, Cullor JS, et al: Prevention of diseases caused by Staphylococcus aureus using the peptide RIP, Peptides 21:1301, 2000. PUBMED Abstract
Fungal Infectious Arthritis
  1. Leitch M: Diagnosis and treatment of septic arthritis in the horse, J Am Vet Med Assoc 175:701, 1979. PUBMED Abstract
  2. Lapointe JM, Laverty S, Lovoie JP: Septic arthritis in 15 Standardbred racehorses after intraarticular injection, Equine Vet J 24:430, 1992. PUBMED Abstract
  3. Peremans K, Verschooten F, Moor AD, et al: Monoarticular infectious arthritis in the horse: 34 cases, J Equine Vet Sci 11:27, 1991. PUBMED Abstract
  4. Schneider RK, Bramlage LR, Moore RM, et al: A retrospective study of 192 horses affected with septic arthritis/tenosynovitis, Equine Vet J 24:436, 1992. PUBMED Abstract
  5. Kohli R, Hadley S: Fungal arthritis and osteomyelitis, Infect Dis Clin North Am 19:831, 2005. PUBMED Abstract
  6. Hansen BL, Andersen K: Fungal arthritis: a review, Scand J Rheumatol 24:248, 1995. PUBMED Abstract
  7. Cuellar ML, Silveira LH, Espinoza LR: Fungal arthritis, Ann Rheumatic Dis 51:690, 1992. PUBMED Abstract
  8. Cohen JM, Ross MW, Busschers E: Diagnosis and management of Candida utilis infectious arthritis in a Standardbred filly, Equine Vet Educ 20:348, 2008.
  9. Madison JB, Reid BV, Raskin RE: Amphotericin B treatment of Candida arthritis in two horses, J Am Vet Med Assoc 206:338, 1995. PUBMED Abstract
  10. Reilly LK, Palmer JE: Systemic candidiasis in four foals, J Am Vet Med Assoc 205:464, 1994. PUBMED Abstract
  11. Riley CB, Yovich JV, Robertson JP, et al: Fungal arthritis due to infection by Candida famata in a horse, Aust Vet J 1:69, 1992. PUBMED Abstract
  12. Sherman KM, Myhre GD, Heymann EI: Fungal osteomyelitis of the axial border of the proximal sesamoid bones in a horse, J Am Vet Med Assoc 229:1607, 2006. PUBMED Abstract
  13. Swerczek TW, Donahue JM, Hunt RJ: Scedosporium prolificans infection associated with arthritis and osteomyelitis in a horse, J Am Vet Med Assoc 218:800, 2001. PUBMED Abstract
  14. Colitz CMH, Latimer FG, Cheng H, et al: Pharmacokinetics of voriconazole following intravenous and oral administration and body fluid concentrations of voriconazole following repeated oral administration in horses, Am J Vet Med Res 68:1115, 2007. PUBMED Abstract
  15. Ross MW: Personal communication, 2009.
  16. Nouyrigat P, Baume D, Blaise D, et al: Candida arthritis treated with intra- articular amphotericin B, Eur J Med 2:124, 1993. PUBMED Abstract
  17. Getman LG: Personal communication, 2009.